Trafficking in Persons Report 2012 Barbados
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At the same time, this report shows that regions have different capacities to detect and report victims of trafficking in persons.
Issues of human trafficking on Barbados agenda | Caribbean
While European countries are relatively effective in this task, not enough victims are detected in developing countries to rely exclusively on the patterns and flows emerging from the detected cases in order to have an accurate picture of what is actually happening in those countries. These considerations lead to the second challenge, which is the current absence of tools to observe the dark figure of the crime of trafficking in persons at the international level. Although some promising pilot research methods have been implemented at the local level, there is still no broadly accepted methodological approach to assess the trafficking in persons globally, beyond the analysis of cases officially detected by local authorities.
The complex variety of the trafficking flows, the diversity of the forms of exploitation, which are sometimes not even codified or clearly defined, and -- even more -- the prominence of domestic trafficking in dispersed areas of the world show that assessing the size of human trafficking in terms of the number of victims is not an easy task.
There is a real need for field research in order to estimate the number of victims trafficked in specific trafficking flows or in specific forms of trafficking. The mandate of the biennial Global Report on Trafficking in Persons opens the door to a long-term strategy to test and implement proper methodologies to better assess patterns and flows of human trafficking also in those areas where the criminal justice response is weak.
There are no easy shortcuts for such a difficult target. The implementation of this strategy will clearly require a coordinated global research effort. It aims to facilitate the review and amendment of existing legislation as well as the adoption of new laws. The Model Law covers not only the criminalization of trafficking in persons and related offences, but also the different aspects of assistance to victims as well as establishing cooperation between different state authorities and NGOs.
Each provision is accompanied by a detailed commentary, legal sources and examples, providing several options for legislators, as appropriate.
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It provides sources and examples for the interpretation of key concepts of the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, and ensures that other relevant instruments are taken into consideration when implementing the Protocol. The Model Law addresses: basic criminal offences; provisions specific to trafficking in persons; ancillary offences and offences related to trafficking in persons; victims and witness protection; assistance and compensation; immigration and return; prevention, training and cooperation and regulatory power. The case law database aims to address the lack of knowledge and understanding of how to make use of the definition of trafficking in persons.
Very little is currently known internationally about the cases where prosecutions have been carried out. How do practitioners use the respective laws and what - if any - are the characteristics of successful prosecutions? In a bid to answer these questions, UNODC has developed a human trafficking case law database to provide immediate, public access to officially documented instances of this crime.
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The database contains details on victims' and perpetrators' nationalities, trafficking routes, verdicts and other information related to prosecuted cases from across the world. It provides not only mere statistics on the numbers of prosecutions and convictions, but also the real-life stories of trafficked persons as documented by the courts. At its launch, more than selected cases from over 40 countries and two regional courts were uploaded, with more added in subsequent months.
Such a database of human trafficking cases enables users to take experiences and court decisions from other countries into account when dealing with human trafficking issues, consult on practices in different jurisdictions and broaden their knowledge of human trafficking crimes. The United Nations Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons The Global Plan of Action requests that Member States and the international community take action against trafficking in persons in the following areas: Prevention of trafficking in persons Address factors that make people vulnerable: Poverty Unemployment Inequality Humanitarian emergencies armed conflicts, natural disasters Sexual violence Gender discrimination Social exclusion Marginalisation Culture of tolerance against violence against women, youth and children Address all forms of trafficking in persons.
Include trafficking in persons in the United Nations work on: Economic and social development Human rights Rule of law Good governance Education and natural disaster Post-conflict reconstruction Implement comprehensive policies and action in line with policies on: Migration Education Employment Gender equality Empowerment of women Crime prevention Conduct research and share best practices.
Develop process for the identification of victims and reinforce the provision of identity documents. Promote awareness raising to discourage the demand and promote human rights education.
U.S officials claim human trafficking still active in some CARICOM countries
Focus on demand and trafficking for labour exploitation, and educate consumers on goods and services produced as a result of trafficking in persons. Strengthen the capacity of law enforcement, immigration, education, social welfare, labour and other relevant officials to prevent trafficking in persons, in cooperation with civil society. Protection of and assistance to victims of trafficking in persons Promote and protect the rights of victims, reintegrate them into the community and treat them as victims of crime making sure that they are not penalized for having been trafficked.
Review and strengthen services and referral mechanisms. Strengthen the capacity of those likely to encounter victims: Law enforcement personnel; border control officers; labour inspectors; consular or embassy officials; judges and prosecutors; peacekeepers and other relevant sectors including civil society. Protect the privacy and identity of victims and ensure their safety as well the safety of their family members.
Provide assistance and services for the physical, psychological and social recovery and rehabilitation of trafficked persons including special services such as access to prevention, treatment, care and support services for HIV and AIDS and other blood-borne and communicable diseases. Consider adopting measures to permit victims to remain in destination countries.
Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012
Ensure a safe and preferably voluntary return of victims to their origin country. Adopt labour laws which provide legal rights and protections for workers that would limit their risk of being trafficked. Provide appropriate assistance and protection in the best interest of the child to child victims.
Adopt measures for compensation. Acknowledge the important role of civil society organizations. Ensure victims' access to justice. Provide victims with a reflection period. Prosecution of crimes of trafficking in persons Criminalize and prosecute all forms of trafficking in persons including attempting, participating and directing other persons to commit an offence as well as organized criminal groups' involvement in trafficking in persons.
Ensure the liability of all categories of perpetrators of trafficking in persons, including the liability of legal persons and entities. Enhance investigation and prosecution and ensure proportionate penalties: use systematically freezing and confiscation of assets. Make use of the available technical assistance. Investigate, prosecute and punish corrupt public officials who engage in trafficking in persons and promote a zero-tolerance policy against corruption. Strengthen cooperation among countries to address crimes that can be linekd to trafficking in persons such as money-laundering, corruption, smuggling of migrants and all forms of organized crime.
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