The Progressives: Activism and Reform in American Society, 1893 - 1917 (The American History Series)

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Stephan to Agent Dougherty, Aug. Brosius, Indian Rights Association, Jan. Thompson , Harry F. Still, in , others questioned the identity and rights of LaCroix and her brothers, Mark and William Wells.

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While Eastman's life reveals the benefits of American education, he also became a noted critic of federal Indian policy. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Apr. Over time, John Q. Anderson's influence grew to include positions as postmaster, general store operator, member of both houses in the state legislature, and the largest land owner on the reservation.

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Nov. Meinrad Archabbey, St. Meinrad, IN. Philadelphia: Office of the Indian Rights Association, , 7. According to Howard, it is the longest winter count and main source on the least-known division of the Sioux Confederation.

American urban history

It covers events from — After attending Hampton for three years, Clark returned home, assisted White Ghost, served as a tribal judge, and was employed as a Protestant catechist. Kohlenberg, Dec. Cobb , Daniel M. The number of local Red Cross chapters jumped from in to 3, in and membership grew into the millions.

The bridge runs between Mellette and Brentford, SD. Clair, and the anonymous reviewers for their assistance with this article. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection. This data will be updated every 24 hours. Login Alert. Log in. Aa Aa. Taft issued an indictment of the former president as egotistical and dangerously radical. Roosevelt responded by presenting Taft as the embodiment of political corruption.

At one of the low points of the election, both sides engaged in name calling.

Woodrow Wilson

It was a rare low for Roosevelt, who was also well regarded. More characteristic of the Bull Moose leader was his delivery of a rousing speech just moments after being shot in the chest by a would-be assassin. Roosevelt could not use his notes on this occasion, as they were covered in his blood, although they may have saved his life.

The bullet passed through the metal case Roosevelt used to hold his trademark round glasses and was nearly stopped by the speech, which had been folded over many times and was nearly as thick as a small book.


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Local political meetings were even more volatile, fueled by the whiskey that flowed during such events, regardless of Prohibition laws. Suffragists representing the votes of women argued that the low state of US politics demanded the moral influence of the fairer sex.

In seven Western states, women did more than protest their exclusion from politics—they cast ballots and even won election to a number of local and state offices. Despite predictions that women would be easily misled or overly sentimental, the votes of women in these states were usually spread evenly between the candidates in ways that mirrored the overall vote in their communities. Women and men in Utah supported the conservative Taft in equal numbers, while women in more liberal areas of the West were part of the majority that cast their ballots for Roosevelt.

Progressive and Socialist candidates both spoke in favor of immediate federal legislation extending the vote regardless of gender. Democrat Woodrow Wilson was evasive on the subject, at least as a candidate in The same was true of Taft. Most politicians recognized that even in areas where women could not vote, opposition to equal suffrage would be a poor long-term strategy as the national suffrage movement gained momentum.

Project Staff and Presenting Scholars – Abolition Suffrage – NEH Institute

Once the goal of a constitutional amendment extending suffrage to all women was realized, hundreds of thousands of women would be casting ballots in every congressional district. These voters would remember the men who had opposed their rights in the past. This map shows the results of the election. The Democrats benefitted from the defection of Roosevelt from the Republican to the Progressive Party. Wilson received only 42 percent of the popular vote. However, because of the unique system of American presidential elections Wilson appeared to win a landslide victory in the electoral college.

Wilson won nearly every state beyond the Great Lakes region, which rallied behind the Progressives. The Democrats also took control of the Senate and added to their numbers in the House of Representatives. After the election, most people who had supported the Progressive Party returned to the Republicans. A number of Progressives were elected at the state and local level, and Progressive ideas had a tremendous influence on President Wilson.

However, the Progressives as a political organization quickly faded away, much like the Populists following the election of Roosevelt remained a leading national figure, while Taft would later be appointed to the Supreme Court where he served as Chief Justice.

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By the turn of the century, every American town with more than a few hundred residents had its own newspaper. A city of 50, might have a dozen different newspapers, many of which were owned and operated by recent immigrants and were published in German, Yiddish, Italian, or Greek. There were also newspapers that sought to represent the views of labor unions, African Americans, and various political parties and movements. Nearly every town with at least a few thousand residents had two leading newspapers that were usually directly subsidized by the Republican and Democratic Parties.

In addition, many of the leading and nationally circulated newspapers were dominated by a handful of powerful newspaper syndicates. In both cases, articles submitted by readers and wire stories distributed by political parties and national syndicates provided much-needed copy for the tens of thousands of understaffed local newspapers. As a result, a well-written editorial might soon appear in a number of newspapers across the nation. A century prior to the widespread use of the Internet to share ideas, ordinary Americans joined professional journalists in broadcasting their opinions through the print media.

Progressives seized this medium to spread their ideas. The president offered both praise and criticism for muckrakers, emphasizing the importance of their work so long as they maintained fidelity to the truth. Muckrakers might also conduct research that was calculated to validate a preconceived conclusion and thereby ignore or marginalize facts and perspectives that were contrary to their opinions.

Despite the abuses of some muckrakers, the Progressives generally succeeded in exposing dirty secrets of political machines, corporations, and governmental administrations. Many of the leading muckrakers even published novels intended to bring their observations to a larger audience in hopes of promoting their reform agenda.

2 18 Political Reform and the Progressive Era

Like the animal he chose to represent the railroad trust, Norris presented railroad barons as aggressive creatures whose tentacles reached in multiple directions and strangled the independence of ordinary farmers. New York Tribune reporter Jacob Riis used a different medium to demonstrate the way corporate greed led to the impoverishment of the city. His book, How the Other Half Lives , was first published in and demonstrated the power of photojournalism. Given the state of photography at this time, Riis had to stage his photos, and his subjects had to hold still for a few seconds.

The same is true of other photojournalists.

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For example, rural Southerners and Appalachians insisted on wearing their Sunday best in photos meant to depict squalor. As a result, these photos demonstrate both the poverty of the region and the quiet dignity of the laboring people that inhabited these places. The work of Nellie Bly reflects a similar brand of determination.

After faking insanity and being arrest and interned, Bly documented the inhumane conditions she and others endured within the asylum.


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