The Guardsman: Book 3: Wrath and Retribution:

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The plot he deflected, thinking he defeated, is only delayed and is slowly closing again. Suddenly he is thrust back into the shadowed and deadly game he thought he was insulated from and had left behind forever. Create Widget.

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About R. Learn more about R. Also in Series: The Guardsman. Also by This Author. Report this book. Reason for report: — Select a reason — Book is or contains spam Book infringes copyright Same content is published elsewhere with different author for ex. Additional details:. Van der Kooij finds a further point of comparison in the form of these chapters: Just as in 1 Chron.

She argues that the principal ideological characteristics of the two works are similar, and notes that both end apparently in mid-sentence with a verb bin, contrast Ezra 1.

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Eskenazi comments 57 : 'Each of these [concluding] verbs can be construed as a keynote or as a pointer to the communal task for the immediate future. I Chr am Ende des Kapitels. Williamson a: See also Coggins and Knibb 74 for a brief discussion of the possibility that the present ending is original. As a result, the last pericope of the work, 9.

On this basis, the present ending of 1 Esdras would be original. Linguistic Similarities between the Books The lexical and syntactical features of Chronicles have been the subject of detailed investigation. It is agreed that these works have a great deal in common linguistically: this is apparent from the extensive lists of 'peculiarities of style and vocabulary' drawn up by Driver , and Curtis and Madsen , and more recently, from Polzin's study of the syntax and lexicography of Late Biblical Hebrew LBH.

Appeals to linguistic evidence are necessarily limited in what they can Not all of Eskenazi's arguments are convincing. Her description of the Chronicler's doctrine of retribution is inaccurate, while the story of the three guardsmen 1 Esd. Nevertheless, Eskenazi rightly notes the emphasis in 1 Esdras on the Davidide Zerubbabel an emphasis absent from Ezra-Nehemiah.

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McKenzie has defended a modified form of the 'fragment hypothesis' against Williamson. His position depends on Cross's argument that the first edition of Chronicles was equivalent to 1 Chron. This in turn reflects in part R. Klein's contention that 1 Esdras preserves an older text type of Ezra than Ezra MT ; However, Klein's interpretation of the data may be questioned cf. Eskenazi 60 n. Williamson McKenzie's explanation for the absence of 1 Esd. Allen , which is an important early witness against any original unity of the works.

The Scope of this Study 21 establish. Apart from the difficulties of distinguishing sources and determining the right comparative methods, by themselves such approaches can affirm at best only the likelihood of common authorship, a conclusion which must be corroborated by other means.

Talshir admits as much: [I]n order to prove that two works are by separate authors it is sufficient to prove that clear-cut oppositions in language and style exist between them. In contrast, there is no simple way to prove the opposite; for affinity in language between two literary works is no proof of authorship.


Japhet's ground-breaking article set out to provide just such evidence of 'opposition in language' between Chronicles and EzraNehemiah. Her work has been challenged, but in my view not decisively.

Welten 4 n. Three recent substantial discussions of the language of LBH should be mentioned here. Polzin is concerned with a different question than authorship, that of establishing the form s of LBH prose. To this end he demonstrates the considerable degree of syntactic and grammatical similarity between Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah excluding the Nehemiah Memoir.

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His illustrative discussion of the 'lexicographic features of the Chronicler' pp. Polzin maintains that grammatical-syntactical distinctions provide more objective criteria than lexicographical features in discussions of linguistic typology contra Hurvitz , but Rooker pp. Like Polzin's, Rocker's own work is concerned with a different question from that being considered here, but he examines a wider range of literature than Polzin and his concluding tables pp.

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His discussion has some methodological problems and omissions which make its conclusions less than convincing. Talshir distinguishes the components of EzraNehemiah but does not separate the synoptic and non-synoptic parts of Chronicles 22 Retribution and Eschatology in Chronicles Williamson a: advanced Japhet's argument considerably by concentrating not on alleged cases of linguistic opposition between the works but on their supposed similarities.

To this end he examined afresh the lists of Driver, and Curtis and Madsen, which have been frequently cited as evidence of common authorship. From these Williamson deduced only six examples that satisfied the criteria a: Throntveit next applied Williamson's criteria which were confined to vocabulary to Polzin's list of grammatical-syntactical features of LBH. He concluded that the similarities in these respects between Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah were also reflected in other post-exilic writings and that linguistic analysis alone could not decide the question of authorship.

This view reflects the judgment of most commentators. It is also worth bearing in mind the limited amount of data available for comparison. As Selman a: 68 reminds us, 'the nonsynoptic material in Chronicles comprises by far the largest literary unit in Late Biblical Hebrew. The evidence therefore for assessing whether Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah might be attributed to a single author is actually quite restricted'.

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Similarity in Outlook, Interests and Theology The decisive case for difference in authorship is made above all, and most persuasively, with reference to the outlook and theological perspectives of the works, and among those who have examined the question in detail Williamson a: ; ; Braun ; Striibind , such a consensus has developed. He interprets differently the significance of the contrast between Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah over the formation of the 1 c. Japhet [ ] found full forms here in Chronicles with short forms used everywhere else. Talshir attributes the absence of the rfpcopKi form from Chronicles contrast its frequency in Ezra to a different scribal tradition pp.

Polzin p. Talshir does not engage with most of Japhet's list of technical terms or stylistic peculiarities Japhet However, as Williamson a: 38 points out, the original purpose of these lists was not to prove common authorship which was accepted on other grounds but simply to illustrate the Chronicler's 'peculiarities of style'. Of recent studies, only Blenkinsopp , Oeming and Mason 1. The Scope of this Study 23 and Ezra-Nehemiah certainly have many interests in common, as previous commentators have noted cf. Curtis and Madsen ; Eissfeldt but they also differ significantly in their treatment of these questions.

Three important subjects may illustrate these differences. The presentation of Chronicles is dominated by David and the covenant with him, through which the dynasty is established and the temple is built. In Ezra-Nehemiah, by contrast, David is much more a peripheral figure, and no mention at all is made of the 'eternal covenant'. Williamson goes on to speak of this development 'resulting] in a shift away from the emphasis of the Deuteronomic historian on the Exodus and Sinai'.

It would perhaps be more accurate to describe the Chronicler's outlook as subsuming the Sinaitic and patriarchal traditions into the Davidic covenant, rather than neglecting them.

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It is evident that the Mosaic Law has foundational significance for the Chronicler, while David is presented as a second Moses in his receipt of the nan for the temple 1 Chron. Allusions to the Abrahamic covenant are found with reference to the promise of the land cf.

But he makes no mention of this fact, nor does he place any emphasis on Zerubbabel as an individual. Instead, the redactor links him constantly with Jeshua and the other leaders of the post-exilic community. The book of Ezra is also silent or unclear about Zerubbabel's status as governor cf. Japhet attributes these facts to a distinctly different religio-historical outlook held by the editor of Ezra-Nehemiah. A concern with the temple and right religious practice is common to most of the post-exilic writings.

This fact is hardly surprising, given the nature of that society. Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah reflect the same social reality, yet there are differences in their presentation which would be difficult to attribute to a common author.