Sir Thomas Wyatt, the Younger - A Short Biography
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Only since the s has he been seen as a Tudor Crown servant: self-serving, inherently loyal to the incumbent monarch, an able statesman in difficult times. John Dudley was the eldest of three sons of Edmund Dudley, a councillor of King Henry VII, his second wife Elizabeth Grey , daughter of Edward Grey , 4th Viscount Lisle , his father was attainted and executed for high treason in , having been arrested after Henry VIII's accession because the new king needed scapegoats for his predecessor's unpopular financial policies.
In the seven-year-old John became the ward of Sir Edward Guildford and was taken into his household. At the same time Edmund Dudley's attainder was lifted and John Dudley was restored " in name and blood "; the King was hoping for the good services "which the said John Dudley is to do".
Thomas Wyatt the Younger - WikiVisually
At about age 15 John Dudley went with his guardian to the Pale of Calais to serve there for the next years. He took part in Cardinal Wolsey's diplomatic voyages of and , was knighted by Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk , during his first major military experience, the invasion of France.
Being "the most skilful of his generation, both on foot and on horseback", he excelled in wrestling and the tournaments of the royal court, as a French report stated as late as In Dudley married Guildford's daughter Jane, four years his junior and his former classmate; the Dudleys belonged to the new evangelical circles of the early s, their 13 children were educated in Renaissance humanism and science.
Sir Edward Guildford died in without a written will, his only son having predeceased him, Guildford's nephew, John Guildford , asserted that his uncle had intended him to inherit.
WYATT, Sir Thomas II (by 1521-54), of Allington Castle, Kent.
Dudley and his wife contested this claim; the parties went to court and Dudley, who had secured Thomas Cromwell's patronage, won the case. Lord Dudley was unable to pay off any of his creditors, so when the mortgage was foreclosed in the late s Sir John Dudley came into possession of Dudley Castle. It is located east of Lewisham , south of Greenwich. Blackheath is within the historic boundaries of Kent ; the name is recorded in as Blachehedfeld and means the "dark coloured heathland ".
Every part of London has a local tradition about plague pits under, say, a local school or shop. They were common. During the seventeenth century Blackheath was, along with Hounslow Heath , a common assembly point for English Armies.
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Before the development of Greenwich palace by the Tudors, one of the most used royal palaces during the latter Plantagenet era was Eltham Palace located about 2. It continued to be used as a royal residence to the 16th century. After pitching camp on Blackheath, Cornish rebels were defeated in the Battle of Deptford Bridge , just to the west, on 17 June With Watling Street carrying stagecoaches across the heath, en route to north Kent and the Channel ports, it was a notorious haunt of highwaymen during the 17th and 18th centuries; as reported in Edward Walford's Old and New London , "In past times it was planted with gibbets , on which the bleaching bones of men who had dared to ask for some extension of liberty, or who doubted the infallibility of kings, were left year after year to dangle in the wind.
The Vanbrugh Pits are on the north-east part of the heath; the site of old gravel workings, Vanbrugh Pits have long been reclaimed by nature and form one of the more attractive parts of the rather flat Blackheath. It is attractive in spring when the extensive gorse blossoms; the pits are named after Sir John Vanbrugh , architect of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard , who had a house nearby, adjacent to Greenwich Park , now called Vanbrugh Castle.
Built over in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it contains many fine examples of substantial Georgian and Victorian houses — most notably Michael Searles ' crescent of semi-detached terrace houses linked by colonnades, The Paragon — as well as some s and s additions; the Cator Estate was built on part of the estate owned by Sir John Morden , whose Morden College is another notable building to the south-east of the heath. St Michael and All Angels' Church, designed by local architect George Smith and completed in , was dubbed the Needle of Kent in honour of its tall, thin spire.
All Saints' Church, situated on the heath, designed by the architect Benjamin Ferrey , dates from The Pagoda is a notable example of a beautiful property situated in Blackheath , built in by Sir William Chambers in the style of a traditional Chinese pagoda, it was leased to the Prince Regent , who would become King George IV , used as a summer home by his wife Caroline, Princess of Wales.
Unlike the commons of Hackney , Tooting Bec and Clapham , Blackheath came to the Metropolitan Board of Works at no expense, because the Earl of Dartmouth agreed to waive his manorial rights, it is held in trust for public benefit under the Metropolitan Commons Act of It passed to the London County Council in to the Greater London Council ; when the GLC closed in , responsibility was given to the two boroughs of Greenwich and Lewisham , where it remains today.
The heath itself is not manorial waste; the freehold is retained by the Manor of Lewisham and the Royal Manor of Greenwich. The heath's chief natural resource is gravel, the freeholders retain rights over its extraction. In , according to tradition, Blackheath was the place where golf was introduced to England — the Royal Blackheath G. Reigate Reigate is a town of over 20, inhabitants in eastern Surrey, England. It is in one of three towns in the borough of Reigate and Banstead , it extends over part of the Greensand Ridge.
Reigate has a medieval castle and has been a market town since the medieval period, when it became a parliamentary borough. Colley Hill , one mile north-west of Reigate, is feet high. Reigate Hill, 2. There are neolithic flint mines on the ridge of the North Downs above Reigate. Bronze Age settlement in the area is indicated by barrows on Reigate Heath.
Tiles on the Rosehill site were first discovered in the s; the tiles would have been used for important buildings in the area. The Rosehill find. Reigate was within an Anglo-Saxon administrative division. Reigate appears in Domesday Book in as Cherchefelle, which appears to mean "the open space by the hill". It was held by William the Conqueror as successor to King Harold's widow Editha, its Domesday assets were: 34 hides, 2 mills worth 11s 10d, 29 ploughs, 12 acres of meadow and herbage worth hogs. Part of the site was excavated in the s, this revealed that the settlement moved during the earlier part of the 12th century when the present town was formed.
William I granted the land around Reigate to one of his supporters, William de Warenne, created Earl of Surrey in , it is believed that his son, William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey, ordered that Reigate Castle be built, although the de Warennes had their southern base at Lewes , Sussex , as well as castles in Yorkshire and Normandy.
Around the Earl de Warenne laid out a new town below the castle. This town forms the basis of modern-day Reigate. Little is known of the castle. Local legend says that prior to the signing of the Magna Carta , the rebellious barons met to hammer out the details of the document in the extensive caves beneath the castle; the story however has no truth to it.
The castle fell into decay and the remains were demolished at the end of the 17th century, though the grounds remain as a public garden, the caves are opened for tours; the origin of the name Reigate is uncertain, but appears to derive from Roe-deer Gate, as the town was situated near to the entrance to the de Warenne's deer park. The medieval town is centred on a north—south road of some antiquity as it incorporates the pre-Conquest road pattern; the story of the Pilgrim's Way passing through Reigate is a myth, although in the 13th century a chapel to St Thomas was built in the town centre for use by Canterbury pilgrims.
Areas of the town have been the subject of extensive archaeological investigation. Bell Street was in existence by the middle of the 12th century and Mesolithic implements have been found here. Much of High Street is of later date, although there appear to have been buildings along its south side, near to the junction with Bell Street, by the 13th century at the latest.
The market place was around Slipshoe Street, at the junction of West Street , but infilled houses encroached on it and it had been moved to the east end of the High Street by the end of the 16th century. Early in the 13th century Grade I listed Reigate Priory was founded for regular canons of the Order of St Augustine , although it was a hospital under the canons.
After the dissolution of the monasteries in the estate was granted by Henry VIII to William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham , who soon converted the priory buildings into a residence; the Effingham branch of the Howard family, including the Earl of Nottingham , lived there until their heirs sold it to the wealthy London brewer, Sir John Parsons , in Remains of the former monastery buildings lie beneath the lawns to the south of the present 18th-century house, now used as a school.
The town developed a large trade in oatmeal during the 16th century but this had ceased by about There was a noted tannery at Linkfield Street, expanded in the 19th century, it burnt down about The coming of the London and Brighton Railway in led to new buildings being built across the parish, resulting in a second town in the eastern fields around the railway station in an area, uninhabited: this town at first had two names but since the early 20th century has been called Redhill.
Reigate has a tower mill on Wray Common. In the medieval period the parish had other windmills, about a dozen animal-powered mills for oatmeal and watermills on the southern parish boundary with the Mole and Redhill Brook. Administrative historyThe non-corporate Borough of Reigate, covering the town centre, was formed in , it elected two MPs until the Reform Act of In the whole parish was formally incorporated as a borough with Thomas Dann as its first mayor.
In Redhill gained its first of two vestry committees within the pari. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition , under Papal control, it became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Catholic Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition.
The "Spanish Inquisition" may be defined broadly, operating in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands , the Spanish Netherlands , the Kingdom of Naples , all Spanish possessions in North and South America. According to modern estimates, around , were prosecuted for various offenses during the three centuries of duration of the Spanish Inquisition, out of which between 3, and 5, were executed; the Inquisition was intended to identify heretics among those who converted from Judaism and Islam to Catholicism.
The regulation of the faith of newly converted Catholics was intensified after the royal decrees issued in and ordering Jews and Muslims to convert to Catholicism or leave Castile. The Inquisition was not definitively abolished until , during the reign of Isabella II , after a period of declining influence in the preceding century; the Spanish Inquisition is cited in popular literature and history as an example of religious intolerance and repression. Some historians have come to conclude that many of the charges levied against the Inquisition are exaggerated, are a result of the Black Legend produced by political and religious enemies of Spain England ; the Inquisition was created through papal bull, Ad Abolendam , issued at the end of the 12th century by Pope Lucius III to combat the Albigensian heresy in southern France.
There were a large number of tribunals of the Papal Inquisition in various European kingdoms during the Middle Ages through different diplomatic and political means. In the Kingdom of Aragon , a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition was established by the statute of Excommunicamus of Pope Gregory IX , in , during the era of the Albigensian heresy, as a condition for peace with Aragon.
The Inquisition was ill-received by the Aragonese , which led to prohibitions against insults or attacks on it. Rome was concerned about the'heretical' influence of the Iberian peninsula's large Muslim and Jewish population on the Catholic, it pressed the kingdoms to accept the Papal Inquisition after Aragon.
Navarra conceded in the 13th century and Portugal by the end of the 14th, however its'Roman Inquisition' was famously inactive. Castile refused trusting on its prominent position in Europe and its military power to keep the Pope's interventionism in check. By the end of the Middle Ages, due to distance and voluntary compliance, Castile due to resistance and power, were the only Western European kingdoms to resist establishment of the Inquisition in their realms. Although Raymond of Penyafort was not an inquisitor , as a canon lawyer and the king's advisor, James I of Aragon , had consulted him on questions of law regarding the practices of the Inquisition in the king's domains.
With time, its importance was diluted, and, by the middle of the fifteenth century, it was forgotten although still there according to the law. Regarding the living conditions of minorities, the kings of Aragon and other monarchies imposed some discriminatory taxation of religious minorities, so false conversions were a way of tax evasion.
In addition to said discriminatory legislation, Aragon had laws targeted at protecting minorities. For example, crusades attacking Jewish or Muslim subjects of the King of Aragon while on their way to fight in the reconquest were punished with death by hanging. Up to the 14th century, the census and weddings records show an absolute lack of concern with avoiding intermarriage or blood mixture.
Said laws were now common in most of central Europe. Both the Roman Inquisition and neighbouring Christian powers showed discomfort with Aragonese law and lack of concern with ethnicity, but to little effect. High-ranking officials of Jewish religion were not as common as in Castile, but were not unheard of either. Abraham Zacuto was a professor in the university of Cartagena.
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Vidal Astori was the royal silversmith for Ferdinand II of Aragon and conducted business in his name, and King Ferdinand himself was said to have Jewish ancestry on his mother's side. There was never a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition in Castile, nor any inquisition during the Middle Ages. Members of the episcopate were charged with surveillance of the faithful and punishment of transgressors, always under the direction of the king.
During the Middle Ages, in Castile, little to no attention was paid to heresy by the Catholic ruling class, or by the population. Jews and Muslims were tolerated and allowed to follow their traditional customs in domestic matters.
465 Years Later: How Should Thomas Wyatt the Younger be Remembered?
The legislation regarding Muslims and Jews in Castilian territory varied becoming m. In early November , Edward Courtenay and his parents were arrested and incarcerated in the Tower of London , his father was accused of conspiring with the self-exiled Cardinal Reginald Pole to lead a Roman Catholic uprising in the so-called Exeter conspiracy and was executed on 9 January Both Edward and his mother were unable to inherit his titles and lands, his mother was released from prison in and for the rest of her life maintained a friendship with Mary Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VIII and future queen.
However, as a great-grandson of King Edward IV and a possible heir of the House of York , Edward was considered too much of a threat to the rule of the House of Tudor to be released. In , Henry VIII died and was succeeded by his only surviving legitimate son, Edward VI; the new King declared a general amnesty, but his incarcerated cousin Edward Courtenay was among the few exceptions. Courtenay may have intended this work as a gift of reconciliation to his royal cousin.
Whatever benefits the translation may have brought him, release from the Tower of London was not among them.